The importance of acquiring sonie knowledge of this language in early u youth was a point upon which Castiglione always insisted in after-years, and which he took care to im- press upon his own son. Among prose-wnters, Cicero, who was afterwards ta become his chief model ; among poets, Virgil and Tibullus, Abbot Serassi tells us,- wcre his favourites. But while classical literature formed the chief object of his serious studies, Italian poets from the tiret attracted his fancy.
Hc looked on with kindling cyc-s when Messer Galeazzo. Castiglione wiis on intimate terms with Beatrices fciecretary. Hi, and Maiioscritti 1. He was among the. He may havc been in the Duchess s rooms on those evenings when cantos ofthe 'DivinaCommedia'were read aloud, and tlie architect Braniante and Gaspare Visconti, the poet, discussed the rival merits of Dante and Pctrarch. He was in Milan on that winter evening when tlie young Duchess died in the bloom of her youth and beauty.
One of his Milanese kinsmen, the able jurist Stefano Castiglione, speaks of the young courtiers popularity in a letter whicli lie addressed to Baldassares father in February, Now, Gian- pietro, tlie widowed Luigias brother, wrote to infonn Jacopo d' Atri of bis kinsman's denth, and assure liini at the same time of Baldassare readiness to serve his father's old frlend.
Agnese is noAv known a. Aller his fathers deatli Biddassare returned to comfort his widowed mother iuid Uike his father's place in the manfigement of bis estiites. The eldest, Polissena, was the wife of Jacopo Boschetto. But the one of ail his family to whom he was most deeply attached was his youngcst sister, Anna, who took the veil in , in the couvent of Santa Paola, a community of Poor Clares, to which uiany of the Gonzaga princesses belonged. For his benefit Castiglione engaged a young tutor named Falcone, whom he had known at Milan, and of whose learning and character he had I the highest opinion.
Castiglione I himself now became attached to Francesco Gonzaga's I person, and soon won the favour both of the Marquis and of his accomplished wife. Lodovico and liis children fled to Innsbnick, and the Castello — that impregnable citadel of the Sforzas — was treacherously surrendered to the eneniy.
Louis XIL now hastened to take possession of his new dominions, and the exiled Duke's nearest relatives, trembhng for their own safety, lost no time in naaking peace with the victorious inonarch. Castiglione, who had by this time alinost completed his twenty-first year, rode through the streets in his masters suite, and wrote a letter to his brother-in-law, Jacopo Bosclietto. Our most illustrions lord remained at Pavia with His Majesty until Saturday evening, when he came to Milan.
On Sunday after dinner, we rode out to meet His Majesty, who came to S. Eustorgio, a church outside the Porta Ticinese, and remained there for some time. Tiiis took place in a chamber at S. Meanwhile many companies of archers and other French troops arrived in great confusion, together with chariots and prelates and cavaliers, and a good many Milanese gentlemen rode ont in some degree of order.
A bout twelve chariots belonging to the Pope's son [Cesare Borgia, Duke of Valentinois] drove up, covered with black velvet and gold brocade, foIk wea by many pages on splendid horses, clad in the Frencli fashion, who were a fine siglit. Meanwhile French gentlemen, lords, and knights went riding continually up and dovm the Street, looking at ladies and making their horses prance and gambol ; they had good horses, but handled them badly and struck out at every one who ventured to corne in their way.
There was one archer who drew his knife and gave our Master of the Horse, M. Over his head n baldacchino of gold bi-ocade was carried by doctors wearing purplc robes, and capes and birettas lincd witli fur. His Majesty wore the ducal mantle of whlte daniask and the ducal cap, lined with fur, also of white damask. So he rode up to the Castello. Mass was sung by tlie Bishop of Piacenza. Aiter niass we escorted the King to the Castello, and went home to dinner, and then back to court.
On Tuesday moming our lord went to court at break of day with two or three liorses, and a talcon on his wrist, because this was the King's pleasure, and they rode out into the country. I will say no more now, but commend niyseU' to Vour Magnificence and beg you to try and get well soon. Two things above al! King Louis and the Marquis Vancesco had become fast friends, and the best that antua had to givc — the paintings of Mantegna, and falcons and horses of rarest breed, were laid at the Victor s feet.
The passionate fires and cnthusiasms of youth were dead, but Galeazzo di San Severino was still for him the model of a peerless knight, sans peur et sans reproche, and Leonardo the foremost painter in the world. Everything, indeed, conibined to niake Castiglione an omaincnt to society, He was yoiing and singularly handsomc. Thcrc arc, unfortunately, no early por- traits of him in existence, but those oi' a later period, with the help of contemporary descriptions, enablc us to form some idca of his appearance. Raldassare hiinself had evidently no wish to plight his troth and remained for many years to corne far more eager to gain inilitar ' glory and diplomatie renown than domestic happiness.
This gifted lady, with her heaven-born instinct for disceming excellence in any shape or form, quickly recognized the rare charm and beauty of the young 1 S. And she on her part never failed him. Just at that time we fiiid Baldassare in command of the garrison of Castighone, a fortification on Mantuan territory. The post was a solitary one, and the young soldier grew restive in this enforced inaction. On January 27 he sent his mother the following note, begging for supplies for hiraself and his serviuits: Carlo asks nie to let Francesco go on Siinday to carve at Messer Lodovico's' table.
This, T tliink, he will easily grant, ns it cannot niatter if I am away for this short time, and I am very anxious to corne. I beg you to teend me some sait and sausages. We arrived ail safe, and the horses too. A single sentence in a letter to his mother is the only record that is left us of his feelings on this occasion. Ilere there is no news that concerns us, but Rome is a wonderful place! On the eve of his departure he WTote to his mother at Casatico: But just before ' ' Archivio storico italiano,' Appendice, il.
A week later the French army marched through the suburbs of S. When at length he reached Rome early in October, he found to his bitter disappointment that the Freiich anny had already left the neighbourhood. In his disgust he ad- dressed the following letter to the Marquis, explaining the causes of his delay and his impatience to rejoin hhn: The reason of my delay has been the irapossibility of procuring a good horse. God grant me this prayer, for I can ask no greater favour in this world!
Now he left the camp with his lord, and retunied to Rome, where his cousin, Cesare Gonzaga, was eagerly expecting him, as we learn from the letters which he wrote early in December to Baldassare's anxious mother. After their departure the quarrels of the French xaptains became daily more bitter, while the soldiers died by hundreds of cold and hunger. The destniction of the French army on that fatal day sealed the fate of Naples, and established the Spanish dominion firmly throughout the kingdom.
Election of Pope Julius II. This tiiTie there could be little doubt as to the resuit. Troops of chiidren flocked to nieet him with olive branches in their hands, singing for glad- ness at the sight of their belovcd Prince. Francesco Maria, was tacitly recognized as Guidobaldo's heir. One of Julius IL's first acts was to suramon Guidobaldo to Rome and promise to appoint him Gonfaloniere of the Church in the place of Cesare Borgia, Cas- tigliones cousin, Cesare Gonzaga, had accompanied the Duke on his return to Urbino, and, after taking part in his campaign against Borgia's forces in Romagna, now followed him to Rome.
Thus, when Baldassare reached Rome with the Marquis of Mantua on his return from the French camp, he found his kinsman already settled in the Vatican. For when I look back upon thcm, I feel more terror than I did at the actuid moment, God be praised! As for Dorotea da Crema,about whora you Write.
I havc made many inquiries of persons who had good reason to know the truth, but ail I could learn from a fricnd of mine, who was one of her guards, is that soine days ago he gave her ducats, in order tiiat she niight takc a long journey. I entreated him to tell me more, but he refused, and 1 can find out nothing further. Valentino hiniself, as he was genemlly cailed iii Italy, -wiia himself in Rome ut this moment, endeavouring to obtain the Duke of Urbino's pardon and the new Pope 'a favour. Guidobaldo, startled at the sight of liis old enemy, rose and drew back a few paces.
Guidobaldo himself was impatient to retum to his own home at Urbino, where the Duchess was govem- ing the State in his absence. Two days afterwards, three Enghsh Am- bassadors. Ile also tells me that he has written to Your Excellency on the subject. There his cousin Cesare Gonzaga gave him a cordial welcome and the Duke appointed him to the command of a Company of fifty nien-at-arms and promised him a salary of ducats.
In a letter to his mother froni the camp before Forli, the last fortress whieh still resisted the Papal forces, Baldassare compiains that since he joined the amiy he has had nothing to do but to nurse himself. Would to God it were cured now! You iisk about my new post. This is the same throughout the whole of Romagna, which is indeed in a pitifui state. I bave as yet received no pay, because when I arrived every penny was spent. But to-day I hope to receive ducats, as the Duke has just sent me word that 1, ducats reaclied Im yesterday.
I will not say more now, as I i Cod. We are both of us gay and happy, and hope that 3'ou and aU our kin arc Uie same. On the evening of Sunday, August 11, , l'ope Julius, having been very restless and irritable ail day, was induced by his servants to take a ride with one of the CardinaLs in the meadows along the banks of the 'J'iber. They went as far as Ponte Molle, and as they were retiirning through the fields, they met a courier from the Duke of Urbino riding at full speed. On hearing the good tidings the Pope burst into joyful exclamations, and hurried home to tnd his congratulations to the victorious leader.
Ex- cepting my foot, I am exceedingly well. God send hini better health! It was then tliat the Duke took Castiglione with him to the city which was to be his home during the next ten years. Maestro iVntonio can tell you ail that you care to know about us. The Lady Duchess and Madonna Eniilia comniend theuiselves very warnily to you, My foot is iniproving, but only very slowly.
Please ask Jeronimo also to send me my copy of Poliziano's " Stanze Volgari. A Mrise and S able ruler as well as a brave captain, this great Monte- feltro prince was foremost among his peers both in the arts of war and peace. The best record of his career is given in the Latin inscription which his son Giiidobaldo placed above the arcades in the court of the ducal palace: His great qualities were further provcd by his many victories and swift and sudden campaigns, by the capture of impregnable fortresses, and the repeated occasions on whicli he put numerous and powerful tbes to Hight, without ever losing a single battle.
In his boyhood Federico was a pupil of the illustrious Mantuan teacher Vittorino da Feltre, whose portrait lie kept before his eyes as a constant reminder of his teaching. Although much of his tinie was spent in active warfare, he never ceased cultivate his mind. Every week he visited the Fraiiciscan couvent, and discussed philosophical and tbeological subjects with the friars. Federico's own fare and habits were of the simplest kind. He rose early and rode out into the country, attended by a few young squires, and on his retum attended mass and walked in the palace gardens, conversing freely with any of his subjects who craved access to their lord.
On summer evenings lie often watched the youths, who were being educated at court, wrestling and playing bail in a meadow of the Franciscan convent behind the palace, and encouraged the lads with his applause, or reproved them if they were awkward and lazy. He often entered the shops and houses, and taking one man by the hand, or leaning on the ann of another, asked them in a friendly way about their family or their affairs. But his most splendid achieve- nient in this direction was the palace at Urbino.
A frieze of warlike giins and engines, of niilitary trophies and banners, runs round the central courtyard ; a troop of dancing children and piitii bearing Haming torches and pots of roses and carnations adoms the mantelpiece of the Sala degli Angeli, where the dukes held private audiences. The portraits of great writers once painted on the walls are gone, but the shelves which held his library, and the seats ranged round, retain their exquisite colourcd and inlaid wood- work.
One door of tins sLudy leads into a Kmall oratory. Many are tlie descriptions of the famous palace that contcmporary writei's bave left us. Giovanni Santi sings of the marvellous house, which bas no equal on the face of the earth ; Antonio calls it an earthly paradise, that attracts strangere from ail parts of the world.
His nephew and niinister, Ottaviano Ubaldini, appeai-s as Ptolemy in the subject of Astronomy, and Federico hiniself, in the red ducal cap, is seen kneeling at the feet of the teacher who discourses on Dialectics. Round the friczc of this hall ran the ibllowing inscription in rude Latin hexaineters, curiously characterLstic of le aspirations of Renaissance humanists: Both within and without the liouse is glorious.
They teacli the story of the past and unfold the meaning of the future. But the best account of the ducal librury that we possess is from the pen of Vespasiaiio de' Bisticci, who aller beiug employed by Cosimo de' Medici and Pope Nicholas V. The Florentine bookseller cannot restrain his wonder and admiration at the sight of this famous and excellent library, which he pronounces far superior to any that has been formed during the last thousand years. AH coUected regard- less of expense, ail superlatively beautifiil.
Wlien- ever the Duke hears of any rare manuscript, he sends for it at once, and during the last fourteen years he has kept thiity-four copyists constantly employed at llrbino, Florence, and in other parts of Italy. Marco of Florence, of Pavia, and of the University of Oxford, and found that it was the only one which contained no dupiicates and no impcrfect copies.
No wonder that the most renowneil scholars were attracted from ail parts of the world to the palace which contained such priceless treasures. The Florentine Baccio Pontelli, who lived at Urbino from until his death in , and is buried in the church of S. When Ijorenzo de' Medici asked this artist for a plan of the famous palace, he replicd that he only wished the Magnifico could see for himself what a thing of beauty it was, while the Duke courteously sent word that he regretted it was impossible to send Ijorenzo the house itself.
Maestro Giacoino by name. A Lombard sculptor, Domenico Rosselli, carved the mantelpieces of the throne-room and Sala degli Angeli ; while Brandano, Diotalevi, and several other lowil artists, were eniployed upon the stucco ornaments and reliefs of halls and conidors. Many other artists of renowu came to Urbino in Federico s reign. Flemisii artists also enjoyed the favour of this enlightened prince.
Federico, wearing the ducal M mantle of crimson velvet and the order of the Garter, " is throned in a chair of state, with three coiincillors behind him, and Guidobaldo, a fair-haired boy of six or seven, in court dress, standing at his side, listening to a blaek-l earded professor — prohably the German Messer Paolo — lecturing on mathematics.
In this noble head of the Duke we recognize the portrait wliich Vespasiano describes as tlie best like- ness ever taken of his lord, and only wanting breath to be aUve. But the finest and best pre- served of the Flemish master s works still in exist- ence is the ' Last Supper,' painted in , for the Confraternity of Corpus Domini, and now in the duciJ palace. In this noble altar-piece we bave a portrait of Federico, with his minister, Ottaviano Ubaldini. Cust, 'The Royal Collections of Paintings," vol. Giovanni Santi speaks of her modest and majestic eye, her grave and gentle character ; and Pope Pius 1 1.
Tlieir union was a singularly happy one, and, after bearing her lord seven daughters during twelve years of married life, Battista gave birth to a son at Gubbio in January, This beautiftil Renaissance building had been erected by Federico on the site of another shrine where his ancestors were buried, and is supposcd to be an early work of the great architect Bramante, who lefl home for Milan about Atter his wife's death he employed Piero della Francesca to paint the fine altar-piece now in the Brera at Milan, for this little sanctuary.
His body, clad in the ducal robes of crimson velvet, with his sword at his side and the Garter on his breast, was brought back to Urbino and bin-ied by his wife's side in the vaults of S. From early years he was notcd for liis literary tastes and love of learning. Like Federico, he was particularly fond of history and theology.
Xenophonand Chrysostoni were his favourite authors. When he fought under the banner of the Church in When he visited Venice in the following year, and was splendidly enteilained by the Doge and Senate, Marino Sanuto remarks that he was unable to dance at a bail given in his honour. Three years later came the crowning disaster of his life, when the treachery of Cesare Borgia deprived him of his State and fortune in a single day, and he was forced to wander horaeless from city to city.
But if Guidobaldo was unfortunate in ail else, he was, a. The tears which Beinbo shed over EUsahetta's grave, the cry that broke from Castiglione's heart when he remembered that the Lady Duchess was dead. Her quick sympathy with joy and sorrow, her readiness to help the needy and rehcve the oppressed, made her beloved by ail. No prayer for succour or comfort was ever addresscd to her in vain ; no suppliant for pardon or favour ever left her doors unsatisRed. Her fine woraanly tact was ever ready to smooth away difficulties, to lend a helping hand, aod counsel patience or submission, delay or prompt action, as the case might require.
Woinen as welJ as men owned the power of her spelL Young and old, they ail loved Elisabetta. Her hrilliant sister-in-law, Isabella d' Este, a highly [critieid lady, easily jealous, and cjuick to resent any claim to superiority in a rival, clierished her with a deep and enduring affection that remained un- changed through every vicissitude of fortune.
Under tlieir rule the court of Urbino maintained the high position which it had aequired in the days of the good Duke Federico, and beeame eveu more famous as a school of art and iletters. The books must be preserved frora the ravages of damp and vermin, as welJ as from the hands of ignorant, dirty, and careless persons. No book niay be taken out of the Hbrary excepting by order of the Duke, and the librarian must take care that a written reeeipt l c given for each vohime, and see that it is cai'efiilly returned.
It was printed by Aldo in , at the expense of Leonardo Crasso of Verona, whose brotlicr had served in the campaign of Ribbiena. During the weary months of exile which the Duke and Duchess had spent at Venice, they had madc many friends among the circle of cultured patricians to which the printer belonged, and had endeared themselves to ail who knew them intimatcly. See, then, how good, how useful it is even for a raonarch to be a philosopher! Of this history bas given us many examples. In prosperity you bave cver been just and kiud, filled with a gracious and unceasing benevolence, and when Fortune has not smiled on you, as your virtues deserved, your conduct has been such us to make raen think that you suiFer nothing from adversity.
I need only point to your courage and wisdom, in ail the troubles that you endured, in that hour when you fled before your foes to escape capture, and God Ilimself came to your help. And we are not the only witnesses of your courage in evil fortune. AU Venice has seen and admired you.
This, then, is one of the advantages of philosophy. In this aiso he resembles you.
Like yourself he was the captain of an anny, like you he was leamed, well educated, and distinguished by lus virtues. When he was not engaged in close attendance on the Duke, his momings were generally spent in the library. In the Duke he found a sympathetie friend who shared his love of the Mantuan bard, and who was as keenly interested in classical texts and metaphysical probleins as he was himself. Guido- baldo, we kiiow, took great pleasure in the society of studious and cultivated persons. In the autumn of , Giuliano de' Mediei had not yet come to seek a refuge in his exile at Guidobaldo's court, and Pietro Bembo was still struggling in vain to escape from the political or commercial career for which his father had destined him.
His younger brother, although he took orders and was made Archbishop of Salerno in , also played an active part in the wars of Genoa, and fought in the galleys of Andi-ea Doria. She was connected by birth and marriage with most of the great families of Northern Italy. After the Rrst shock was over, Emilia recovered health and spirits, und showed tlie same tender solicitude for others, and the same keen interest in passing events.
Her daughter Costanza, afterwards the wife of Count Landi of Piacenza, took an active part in, the pastimes of the court, danced French and Spanish dances with Margherita, to the deHght of the specta- tors, and corresponded with Pietro Bembo, who stood sponsor to her first-born son. Hehad knowTi thisgentle Princess in his boyhood at Mantua, and seen her go forth as a young bride to her new home beyond the Apennines. For him, in those early days, she had been the bright, particular star whom he wor- shipped trom afar.
Xow he learnt to know her in- timately, and enjoyed that easy and familiar converse with the Duke and Duchess which, Bembo tells us, was a leading feature of hfe at Urbino. Dumcsnil, 'Histoire clea Amateurs italiens. Wc kjiow how fondly he looked back on those joyous tiines in later years ; how ten- derly he recalled each little incident of the vanished days, and sighed for the faces of the friends whom he had lost. Nor was he alone in this l'espect.
There were other survivors of that brilliant groiip who looked back on the years spent at Urbino as the best time of their life. Sonnets and canzord, stnfizc and rime, were composed and recited, now by one member of the group, now by another. Other courtiers less accomplished, but no less anxious to please, caugbt the prevailing fashion, and tried their hand at rhyming.
Next year it was the tum of Castiglione and Cesare Gonzaga. Graver and more solid works were also produced by leading scholars and humanists. When Elisabetta came as a bride to Urbino in , riding and hunting parties were constnntly plaimed for her diversion. Sometimes, espeeiaUy when the Marquis Francesco or his brother Giovanni came to visit their sister, hunting-parties on a large scale took place, and the chase was extended to the parks of Fossombrone and Castel Durante.
Madonna EmOia — borw the ercning was to be spent. Jacopo Saasecondo would cliarm his listeners with the melodious strains of his viol ; or Morello, the aged loi-d of Ortona, would play the hite witii his wonted skill. Another con- Mstt'tl in i-ei-iting impromptu verses and sonnets. Every one was free to speak, sit. Fra Seratino tells Isabella that the letter which she sent to him by Count Lodovico Canossa, filled him witli ch transports of delight that he rushed into the uchess s bcdroom, to the amazemeut of her waiting- women, and danced and capered about madly, until EUsabetta herselF cuught him by the hair and asked what had happened.
There were other and more exalted personages mong the guests who spent that autumn at the court f Urbino. The Lady Prefetessa, as she was still called, arrived from the Papal court, bringing her son Francesco, the Duke s adopted heir, and her youtliful daughter, Costanza, a girl of tifteen, whoni Castiglione describes as being as good and gentle as she was fair to look upon. Ciaii iu ' Archiviu sluricu Lombardu,' vUi. Tlie Papal nuncio, sitting between the Duke and liis nephew the l'refettino, before the altar.
Find a copy in the library
The l'apal bull was then read aloud, and Francesco JMaria, standing on the altar steps with an illuminated niissal open before him, at a miniature of the Blessed Sacrament, swore by the body of Christ to be loyal to His Holiness, After this. It was a yoimg artist, the son of Giovanni Santi of honoured niemory, the court painter and poet who had served Guidobaldo and his father faithfully and well for inany a year, and who in his last days had been the object of the kind Duchesss tender anxiety.
Messer Pietro of Perugia. Michael which he had painted on the back of a draught- board, and the Madonna wth the pure brow and heavenly sniile, which hung in Elisabetta's chamber. Baldas- sare did not forget his home at Mantua. His letters to his mother show the same deep interest and affec- tionate sohcitude for every member of the family which he had left behind. He begs to be informed of the smallest events at home, and repeatedly pro- fesses his anxiety to gratify liis young brother Jero- nimo's wishes and to be guided by Madonna Luigiu in every particular of business.
The Duchess received me and continues to treat me with far more kindness than I dcserve. As you see, I bave not been at the trouble to answer every particular of Your Magni- ficences inquiries. However, as long as we can keep out of debt let Fortune do her worst! As to our afiair of importance. For I am sure that some one else will start up and tell me that this thing cannot be done. However, if you will tell me M. The Lady Duchess and ladonna Emilia are very well. I would not come to IVlantua now for anj'thing in the world.
Madonna Luigia apparently was anxious that her son should come to Mantua, not only on his brother's business, but because she had fresh marriage proposais on his own I Ginevra Rangone, wife of GlAngirolamo da Correggio, am aficrwards of Luigi Gonzaga. So he wrote to his mother froin Ferrara, finnly declining to enter on any negotiation which would compel him to leave the Duke of Urbinos ;rvice. I should no longer be able to arrange anything for Jeronimo, whereas, if he really wislies to find a career, and if Godgrants His Holiness life and health, I may l e able to help him.
And althougli this may be a good olfer, none the less it is not so good that 1 might not easily find a better. Your Magnificence will understand what 1 mean, and 1 pray God to be my guide, that I may act for the best'i Unibrtunately, the post which Castiglione had hoped to obtain for his brother was apparently not yet vacant, and his errand in this respect was doomed to alure.
A little while ago he asked for some rabbage, and was. This did not prevent Baldassare from finding a cordial welcome at Ferrara, and spending a very pleasant time aniong his friends at the court, as he tells his mother in another letter, written on the eve of his departure, and dated December 9: Barbara 'l'orella Bentivoglio,' M. Polissena of Bologna with the big voice, and several othei-s. For tlie rest 1 will only beg you to keep well and be of good courage, as I aiu also.
As to my horees, I would sell them gladly, in the hope of buying better ones. I will give yonr messages at Urbino. At length, early in December, he sent a litter drawn by four niagnificent wliite horses to Urbino, and ordered the Duke to corne to Rome without further delay. Castiglione and Cesare Gonzaga, with the ehief part of his suite, were sent on to Rome, and arrived there on Christmas Eve, while the Duke and his nephew, the Prefettino, did not reach the city until January 3.
That evening both Princes slept at S. My Lord Dukesown gentlemen certainly did him Iionour, and were ail moimted on fine horses and clad in suits of gold brocade. I myself wore one. He looks remarkably well. It can only bring us good, and would benetit Jeronimo niost of ail, and I should like to feel tliat, once for ail, his feet were planted finnly in the grouiKt.
But tbe Pope pleaded L IS. Bishops, and Cardinals say and do, 1 think it would give you little plea. The Pope is ready to grant him whatever he chooses to ask, without ceremony, and cornes frequently to His Highness's rooms, lias long talks with him, and is most friendly without any formality. To our Suor Laura 1 hardly know what to send. I should be glad if. Amato of Ferrara lias received from the new Duke. I do not write to M. Jacopo ; Vour Magni- ficence wilJ kindly commend me to him and M adonna Polissena and to ail the rest.
This time, at least, he had inore to tell. Jacopo of the Spaniai-ds. Nothing else worthy of note took place on this occasion. Yesterday being March 1, the Polish Ambassadors niade their state entry, having conie to pay hoinage to His Holiness. Some of l them had the same dcvice embroidcred in pearls on one sleeve and stocking, and most of them wore silver chains. Before them rode two Tiirks on Ajab horses, with Oriental turbans on their heads ; and behind four Tartars straiigely attired, with bows and arrows and curions fur caps.
But His Holiness has not yet given them an audience. Pietro ad Vincula, A ragona, M edio i. A year later this lady. Castiglione was not forgetting to for- waixi his brother Jeroiiimo's interests. After the death of liis young wife. Battistina Cibo, within a year of her marriage. Luigi took orders and became a Cardinal before he was twenty.
His close relationship with le Este princes, his schohirly tastes and love of Tnusic and travel, ail endeared hini to Castiglione, whom he had known froni boyhood, and whom he frequently met at Mantiia and Ferrara. He, too, was on friendly ternie with Guido- baido and Klisabetta. In Castigliones letters to Mantua.
Sigismondo Gonzaga, would, no doubt. The prospect of seeing his mother's kinsman exalted to Uie Cardinalate. And if he should fail us, we are not so friendless, nor is our good fortune so entirely dead, tliat we may not stiU look for some good thing to come our way. I am certain Jeronimo will soon obtain a good and honourable post. So I hope to be able to effect this nnu-li.
He need not take any further orders. This is my ad vice. Then he who risks nothing gains nothing ; and the fact of being in Rome need not hinder his studies, for this is the fount of ail learned men. My lord has not inentioned it to me, either witli his own lips or through anyone else. For this task it is necessary to send a man of birth who will be acceptable to His Majesty the King, and will be ti'eated with much honour. It would take VOU I. A few days after Easter 1 will corne to Mantuu and spend eight or ten days with you, after which, if it pleases Ciod.
Easter fell early, and the weather was bitterly cold. Snow fell lieavily at ITrbino, and was twelve inches deep on April 7. We are impatiently expectingthe settlement of our Mantuan afFairs. Both the niarriage business and that of the Cardinal s hat are progrevsing inost happily. But whether it takes place then or later, Vour Jlagnificcnce may be sure that I will not set out on the joumey without coming to spend some days vnth you, for 1 really am not so undutiful as you appear to think!
But he gives ntinute instructions about a pair of hounds and a falcon, which he has asked a friend to send to Mantua, and begs Jeronimo to watch over theni, until sonie way is found of bringing theni to Rome. There had been sonie idea that Castiglione should be knighted by the Pope at Easter, but this ceremony had been deferred. Throughout the past winter, whether sick or well. At Urbino the ambassadors were royally entertained by the Duchess, in lier lords absence, and Bembo once more enjoyed the company of Elisabetta and Emilia Pia.
Then the guns of Sant' Angelo were fired and the procession went on its way towards Monte Giordano, where the envoys were hospitably received by their Orsini allies. Julius promptly conferred this post, together vnth the bisliopric of Creraona and the rich abbey of Chiaravalle, which the late Cardinal had he]d, on his fortunate nephew. And indeed this death bas happened in an evW hour for Italy. May God grant hini peace! Our rexiew is to be held on St. We are ail well now, which is saying a good deal in Rome at this season, and most of ail our illustrions lord, who, eontrary to his usual habit, is in reniarkably good healtli.
Vour dispensation is drawn up and signed. On the 30th he wrote to his mother: I exerted myself more than ail the rest to do honour to my dear lord, and also to myself. On August 2 Cesare replied to hu aunt s letter in the foUowing words: This has caused me the utmost grief, because of his excellent parts and goodness and our intimate fi'iendship, but more than ail because M.
Baldassare has lost in him so true and faithlul a friend. This alone would grieve me as much as anything that could happen now. But since he realizes what we must ail feel in regard to those things, he has no need of teaching to enable him to bear his misfortune, and, as 1 think he is writing to you on the subject, I will say no more.
Jeronimo, who will, 1 hope, not abandon the good path o which he had s-tarted with our poor friend, eve though he has lost his guide. I know not when 1 shali get over the sadness tliat oppresses me, and fcel tliat Fate has become my I enemy. But Foilime has not suffered me to reward iiiin with aiight but my tears, which II I would at least bave hked to shed over his grave. I I can say no more. Jacopo, f Mttdonna Polissena, and ail the others ; niost of ail to. The soil is no longer fertile, and le flock wanders without a shepherd. Alas I un- happy boy.
For we lived together from our tenderest years, and shared the beat of the day and tlie cold of winter nights, and reared our fiocks by our common labour. Afy liands were not alloM-ed to close thy dyijig eyes ; my lips were lot able to kiss thy cold brow. The very name of Alcon, which Castiglione adopted from its similarity to tlie name of his lamcnted ti-iend, is borrowed from the ttftli eclogue.
And as the Renaissance poet caught the notes of the Roman singer, so he in his tum found an imibitor in an English bard of the seven- teenth century. He toc weeps over a gifted youth, linked to him by the closest tics of friendship. Sixty years ago the inscription Cr, Vbaido jyu. Nothing of the Duke's once splendid home now remains but the shell of the building and the fountain in the garden that was Elisabetta's especial delight. So 1 pray yoii kindly tu siipply me with the needful sum ny the tinic 1 name.
I hear that many persoiis are Ntill dying of the plague at Mantua, which seems to nie very strange. Bembo, indeed, had been once more obliged to tear himself away from tlie pleasant Society which he enjoyed so much ; but his rival Vincenza Calmeta, 1' Unico Aretino, Fra Serafino, Ottaviano and Federico Fregoso, were ail tliere, and Serassi, i. On the same day that Castiglione wrote to his niother, Serafino addressed an epistle in Latin verse to the ISIarchesana Isabella, telling her that r Unico Aretino lias just been reciting a capitolo and sonnet of his own composition — ' with M'hat chai'm I cannot tcU yoii!
Cian, in ' Archivio st. Castiglione himself now went to the Batlis of S. Casciano, in Tuscauy, and wrote the foUomng letter to his mother on September But this, I expect, has been owing to want of niessengers. In this letter I need not say much, as Francesco will tell you ail you want to know. Now I am at the Baths of S. The E-mail message field is required. Please enter the message. Please verify that you are not a robot. Would you also like to submit a review for this item? You already recently rated this item.
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Here the pupil will fitid the idhlos oi' the personal pronouns, and, at the Exercises upon them, which he will do as directed above. The pupil therefore must attentively peruse them ; and particularly retain the contents of p. The Exercises found at these pages must also be done, and corrected, as mentioned before. Here the i upil will find a useful table of the possessive pro- nouns, with their declension and Exercises. The whole indispensable to the pupil.
In these pages are contained the conjugations of the auxilia- ries, Avere, to have, and Esserc, to be ; which the pupil ought to have learnt by heart, all tiie while he studied the pronouns, and did the Exercises upon them. The pupil ought to learn by heart first the conjugation of these auxiliaries alone, and then the whole again connected with these short sentences, which will enrich his mind, at the same time, with familiar phrases and colloquial forms.
Let him also take particular notice of the Notes at the bottom of each page. The perspicuous Table of the three regular conjugotions ex- hibited in this page, supersedes the necessity of the pupil studying the verbs fully displayed from p. J 50 to The Letters will give him some idea of the Italian epis- tolary style, chiefly on literary subjects — and the Selection from eminent poets and prose writers will familiarize him with most of the learned or entertaining Italian books now extant. The praxis which Sig. Galignani has furnished for every part of speech, and particularly for the articles, prepositions, degrees of comparison, and auxiliary verbs, are admirably calculated to facilitate the acquisition of correct speaking and composition.
Many idioms, peculiar to the Italian tongue, arc pointed out and explained, which have not before been remarked in any grammatical Tract, written expressly for our own country. Galignani, I have substituted to it the reference to the Lecture itself, where they are to be seen. See the Advertisement I have prefixed to the same, where some strictures will be found on the usual method of exhibiting them in all other Italian Grammars, — Editor. The many slight alterations which the text and notes have undergone are not noticed: To the elucidation of this intricat!
I have therefore given a new cast to the two Lectures above-mentioned, and made only one of both, with- out omitting- any thing but useless repetitions which occurred here and there. As to the importance and merit of these additions, I appeal to the judicious Italian critic, and to the Author himself, who cannot possibly deny that our joint f exertions were then greatly checked by short finances and time, to give the proper extent and polish to such an important production.
With all other readers I have no better means to justify myself than by submitting to their perusal the following enumeration of the classical works, from which I can most solemnly assure them to have derived the whole of the grammatical part of my own materials. XXlll Vocaholaiio dolla Ciusca, 5 vols. Rabbi, Sinoniiui, ed Aggiunti Italiarii, 4to. Cinonio, Osservazioni della Lingua Italiana, 2 vols. The celebrity of llie above volumes is so universal, that it will seeure me the unanimous approbation of all those who will do me the honour of crediting the above assertion.
For the inarginal directions of the former edition, I have substituted an Index, which, being alpha- betically digested, and far more copious than them, will prove of a much readier and more useful assis- tance to the student. Arabic figures, in regular progressions, have been added to each paragiaph, and their series recom- menced at every Lecture, for a more precise re- ference to any j artor the work, either in the prose- cution of the same, or in tliecom[ ilation of the Index. Let, the reader l e iiwarc that tliis is tlir only edition to whieli implicit credit ought to be given.
I am of opinion, that an elementary book can scarcely deserve the name of Grammar without these useful appendag-es, which, besides being esta- blished by the almost unanimous practice of other grammarians, they save also the scholar the pur- chase of other books for some time. Many being apt to judge of the merit of a publi- cation without reading the Preface, little caring for what the author might say to recommend his work in preference to any other, I have prefixed an Ad- vertisement to the Lectures on Pronunciation, on Personal and Corijunctive Pronouns, to the Models of the Begular, and the List of Irregular Verbs, as well as to my Dialogues, including some strictures on the usual method of treating and collecting similar sub- jects in almost all other Italian Grammars.
To those I refer my readers ; and, soliciting their kind indul- gence, I beg of them to remember, that a Grammar cannot contain all the possible rules belonging to the language it explains ; but that the student ought to be contented if the most important are not omitted, and if whatever it contains is accurately and perspicuously delivered, which I humbly pre- sume to be the qualification of the present work. At page 31, of my Treatise, where?
See tlie Table of Elements at the end of this Lecture. Boft, as in cacio. Hat, us in occhw. The Italian Language is written witli the following twenty-two characters or letters, viz. Which by the Tuscans are thus called: The Italian tongue has this great advantage over the English, French, and other European languages; the words are written exactly as they are pronounced: The E in pesea sounded open signifies a peach; sounded close, it means fisliini;.
The following lists are subjoined to give the student some idea of the diflerence of meaning by the two sounds of the vowels E and J. Sic lluien on this letter at p. For another GexNeral Rule, see the Conclusion, n. Thee verb is ; e conjunction and ; the negative ne neither ; and in such iuJerjections, oime, ainie, alas! Cittadini and G'gli iiavo established the ranie rule, althouKli they were both natives ot' Sicima, and jjreat antagonists to the Academy Delia Crusca. Betwixt the consonants M and N, as alnicno, at least ; argonicnio, argument ; and before two NN's, as citnio hint ; pt una.
In all words having an accent on tlie O final, as in tin- first persons sin;:: In alt nionosNllablcs iMuli. From what has been said it must be evident that E or O open never occurs, except in those sylhihles on which the accents fall ; although, as has been exemplified, there are many syllables of that nature in which the E or O are close. Corollary, — No word can contain more than one open O or E. Hides on the sound of the S.
The pronunciation of this letter is one of the most delicate in the Italian tongue, and not perfectly understood by all Italians ; the Florentines can with justice boast the most graceful pronunciation of this letter. Before the C n? Note, Fravchc, a Frenchman, is excepted, and must bo pronounced with the. S is sounded smart. Hut to discern hem pro- perly, is, perhaps, more dillicnlt lliau those of the N.
Short Observations on the sound of some other Letters and Syllahles. J lungo is a vowel in Italian ; we make use of it at the end of some nouns, or verbs, instead of two i'. The academicians Delia Crusca have edited tliis valuable work, but have rejected this principle, by uniformly printing, with a comino-. The letters GN must be [ ronounced soft, as in cam- pagna, country, regno, kingdom. It sounds very near the same as gn in the word poignant.
The letter 77 has no sound at the beginning of words, as in the English words hour, hamonr, herb ; but wiien it comes between 6' and E, r. In the in- tcrjertionc, such as ah! Tliere are some other few combinations of letters to repre- sent all the elements of the Italian lanofuage, which being easily pronounced, do not deserve to be spoken of ditfsisively. The following Table will, however, exemplify thein all, and, by an accurate pronunciation of the Italian examphs annexed to each Italian element or syllable, the true sound of almost every Italian word, more or less difficult to pro- nounce, will be attained as near as possible without the assistance of a good master.
The reader will therefore observe, that the Italian language has thirty elements or sounds, and only twenty-two letters to represent them in writing. B b Babbo, bibbia 3. E open a 8. E close ai 9. S smart s Nouns of both genders, ending in E or O, take their plural in I ; as, padre, father, padri ; capello, hair, capeJli ; cappello. Effigie, effigy, specie, species, superficie, surface, bar- bdrie, barbarity, serie, series, progenie, offspring, are excejit- ed, and have the same termination in the plural. There are some feminine nonns which have a double singular and double plural ; as, veste or vesta, a vest; dote or dota, portion ; frode or froda, fraud ; fronde or fronda, a leaf: Nouns in A are of the feminine gender.
Any attempt to arrange this Lecturf. The accent is useless, but they belong nevertheless to this rule. Jonic, fountain ; scrpc, snake. The follow in;- are excerpted; viz. All nouns in are masculine. And in the same Lecture, various tables will lie found of nouns, both substantives and adjectives, which change their iinal vowel, and either change or retain the same meaning. There arc some words in O which have two termina- tions; viz. The first terujiiuition, viz. In the declension of nouns, a List of such substantives will be given in its proper place.
They are founded upon the constant practice of the Academicians Delia Crusca. A few exceptions only are against it ; they write, for instance, nfficj, servigj, offices, services ; but we could even find some reasons for these in iheir derivation frocn others meaning perfectly the same, and ending in xio in the singular, as servizio, uffizio, which of course belong to the second class, and make their plural sercizj, ujDhj. To diminish the perplexities arising from the-e three exceptions, Nos.
On Adjectives and Articles, with useful Tables, showing the variations of all Nouns, and the method of joining their Articles with some Prepositions. Adjectives have but three terminations: Adjectives, in Italian, must always agree with their substantives. As to the proper place or position of the adjectives, that point will be stated after the declension of nouns. As all substantives, in whatever situation they are found, never vary their termination, except from the singu- lar into the plural, there are consequently some particles to distinguish their different cases, which are called Articles.
Ofthe Articles commonly called Definite. The Italians have two definite articles for the masculine gender; viz. IL, LO the ; and one for the feminine, viz. The article IL is put before nouns which begin with a consonant: The article LA is placed before all feminine nouns ; as, hi ten-a, the earth: But when such nouns bei: Whatever is necessary for the clear understandinp,' of what belongs to substantives, adjectives, and articles, will be plainly shown hy the two following tables.
A Table of the Articles and their Variations, icith short Remarks. Essi-ndo il xpirto rial lei nodo sciSlto. Who sits at the mirror o the liquid sireain. Alio, To the,or atthe Agli, To the, or at the A bl. Dallo, From the, or bj the Dagli, From the, or by the Sing. Alia, To the, or at the Alle, To the, or at the Abl. From the, or by the, Szc. Wlien LO is a pronoun, and is after the particle no instead of won in the sublime, we write them both in one word; thus, nol voglio, instead o rion lo voglio, I will not have it: The Academicians do not admit of any such distinctions ; and Cinonio is also for the elision before any noun, as the most universal way of writing it.
In the serene heaven For the resplendent, S: Upon thf crystulline, Sec. To the, or at the, Sec.
J Su 'lyUnsul, iH not socoiDiiioi ;ii prisfiii. II Con i, for coi or 'o', is liki-wiiie incorrect. The unhappy day Ofthe, cSsc. Lo spavento terribile Dello spavento terribile Alio spavento terribile Dallo spavento terribile Gli spaventi terribili Degli spaventi terribili Agli spaventi terribili Dagli spaventi terribili Sing.
Gli studj interrotli The interrupted studies D i: Sugli sceltri imperidli Upon the imperial, Sec. Dagli dci dc"" gcnlili I'rom the, or by the, Sec. In the perpetual liatred For the honest man With the bloody sword Upon the paternal love Plur. Nouns Masculine in the Singular often made Feminine in the Plural. In like manner the following: Centinari Centinara o o o Centinaio: The Section k points out others used in the beautiful and elegant capital of Tuscany, but if adopted elsewhere, they would be pedantry.
It is proper to observe that anello signifies a Rins; and a Thimble, the thimble is the measure used in Italy tor selling by it the Silk-Worm-Eggs: Both at Florence, and in every other part of Tuscany, Budclli is always used when the word is preceded by a numeral noun, as due Budelli, tre Budelli, S,-c.
Coltella is frequently used in the singular number, but then it means a hunter's or butcher's large knife. Corni is the only plural of Corno when applied to a musical wind-instrument, but in other cases Coma is pre- ferable. Dilello, with its plural terminations, was used in Boc- cace's time; few Florentines would now understand what it means. Besides Ditelli would always be considered a barbarism. Frulte is properly the plural of Frutta, sing, f. Grani is always the only plural for grains of Weight and Corn. The Florentines do elegantly use Grana in the sense oi'seed, corns or small lumps.
Migli is the only plural used when speaking of diffe- rent kinds of Millet. Meriggi and merigge signify nothing else, but the shadows caused by the objects opposed to the sun, and in this sense Meriggi is to be preferred. When it means Noon on the sonthern quarter of the world, nieriggio has no plural, but has the singular feminine two ways, Blerigge and Meriggia, and Meriggio masculine.
Ossi is always the plural of Osso, when speaking of bones given to a dog, or cleared from table. Quadrella is the poetical plural in the sense of arrows or shafts. Risi is the plural of Riso. Rubbio is a corn-measure, which answers to the Me- dimnus of the Latins; it contains at least six Italian Moggia. This word has escaped the notice of many Dictionaries ; 97 but still there is not in Italy any Book of Aritlnnetic, how- ever small it may be, but treats of the RuhbiOj though this measure be not in great use in Tuscany. The incredible fatigues Of the, kc. To the, or at the, ike.
To the, or at the, 8cc. From the, or by the, ike. The plump cheek Ofthe, ike. The plump cheeks Ofthe, ike. In the infidel wife Upon the soft cheek Plur. In the infidel wives Upon the smooth cheeks Make use of these prepositions before every feminine noun which does not begin with a vowel. Nouns of the Feminine Gender beginning with a Vowel. I have therefore changed the exemplification, to justify in some measure the orthography of this article; but in so doing I have been compelled to choose a noun properly be- longing to the next class, p.
Alle eta decrepite To the, or at the decrepit, tSic. In fact, wlien there is an adjective it ouRlit to be indeclinable Ion, to wiite this ailicle without clis-ion with propriety. Apply the Exception as above. To the, or at tlie. General Observation on all the foregoing Declensions. The great events and revolutions of France. The eclipses of grande evento rivoliizione Francia eclissi the moon.
The study of belles lettres. The fear of the torments of hell. The virtues of mio camera timbre tormento inferno virtii the Romans. The hatred of my enen ies. All the bones of Romano odio mio nemico osso your body. The ring- of the princess. The fable of tlie frogs. Tostro corpo onello principessa fdxola ranucchio The looks of the assembly. The country of the Amazons. The handsome women of London.
The tree of liberty. The grande soddisfazione, che io ho albero libertd bottles and glasses. Tne friends and enemies of your country. The Emperors and Empresses. The most difficult exercises. The loves of Phyllis. I have trba spezidle ambre Fillide Io ho three uncles. The happy state of England.
The bad snccess tre zio felice stato Inghilterra caltivo successo of that undertaking, The black eyes of my sister. The noise quello impresa nero bcchio di mia sorella rinnore of the mob. The days of the week. With plebdglia dl settimdna spirito the books. Upon libro onore pensdnte dnima the table. Upon the tdvola brgano gravicembalo appearances. In the npparenza ekzibne cdmera kingdom. There are many nouns in English wliich do not atlniit of the article before them. In Italian, they always take the article, as uill be seen in the lollowiny; instances.
Full text of "Baldassare Castiglione: The Perfect Courtier"
Virtue cannot affrec with vice. L' ubbriachexza e abbomine- xole. Music is pleasing to the ear. Philosophy is the mistress of La FilosoJ'ia e la maestra vt isdom. Gold and silver do all things. L' oro e V argcnlo fanno ogni cosa. He punishes pride ; she blames vanity; you preach tem- Lgli punisce orgoglio; clla bidsima vanitd; voi predicdtetem- porance ; they love virtue; to avoid idleness; to reward perdw. Some nouns, although taken in a general and indefinite sense, have the article in Italian, contrary to the English.
I like milk, butter, andcheese. Mipidce illatte, il burrowed il cdcio. Wine rejoices the heart. II vino raUvgra il cadre. JLuogotenenteGordon ; Reg iruiCar lotto: Some of the above nouns may also take the indefinite ar- ticle, as will be observed in the following Lecture. The eyes and ears ; the arms and legs ; the father, motJier, occhio e orecchia ; braccio e gamba ; padre, madre. In several instances the Italians make use of the article instead of the possessive pronoun ; as, I will break your head, lo li roiuperb il capo ; my eyes are sore.
Ho male ogli occhi ; I uill throw this at your face, Vi getlerb questo ul liso. Wash your hands; my headaches: On the proper Position of Adjective Nouns. Ml adjectives of nations are placed after the substan- tive: I 2 36 ground ; unfuoco inttnso, an intense fire ; im aria salubre, a wholesome air ; tejjipo caldo orfreddo, hot or cold weather. Adjectives of taste; as, im' erba amara, a bitter herb; sidro agro, sour cider ; frutlo dolce, sweet fruit.
Verbal adjectives; as, t iwo cotto, burnt wine: Un nomo virtuoso, a virtuous man; un vero amico, a true friend. There are some other cases in which adjectives are placed after substantives, chiefly for the sake of harmony of sound ; but they may be easily learnt by practice. Generally when there are two or more adjectives joined to the noun, it is more usual in the familiar style to let them follow the substantive ; as, una donna dotta e religiosa, a learned and religious woman; but in many cases we hud the reverse of this rule.
The ear should be our guide, particu- larly in the sublime. The indcfiiiitc articles are indiscriminately pnt before nouns masculine or feujinine, singular and plural ; before j ronouns, as well as before infinitive of verbs, adverbs, and prepositions, as nil! Before adverbs and prejiositions ; as di dove sd? A, followed by a vowel, takes, in general, a Z , for the sake of better sound ; as, ad un aviico, to a friend ; ad An- drea, to Andrew.
The numeral article is what the English, with more pro- priety, call the indefinite article ; it is joined to di, a, da, as follows ; Siug. The Partitive Article is used to signify that some, or some part only, of the whole kind and species, or number of things are meant. It IS worth observing, that some, when aftei a verb, which indicates the action of giving to eat or drin'K, Is ex- pressed in Italian bv termination, or indefinite article DA ; as.
A muff; a pou'der-box ; a bed-chamber ; an ox; some manicotlo scdlola da pulvere camera da lelto hue oxen: Is; some silk ; some linen ; some salt; buoi ragdzza seta biancheria sale some money ; some siver buckles; some glasses ; some veal; dendro fihbia d' argento bicchiere vitello some partridges ; I drink always water ; I hear some women pernice to bevo sempre acqiia sento donne quarrel ; 1 never eat fruit. Finally take notice, that the following forms of speech in the English language are expressed, in Italian, in the manner here exemplified.
The king's son, llfigliodelre; my brother's wife, la moglie di mio fratello ; the queen's coach, la carrbzza della regina ; my father's house, la casa di mio padre. My master's horse ; my servant's gloves ; my friend's books ; mio padrone cavdllo serva gudnto amico libra my uncle's son. An oil cruet, Uti' ampolla da olio ; a tobacco-box, una scdtoJa da tahdcco ; a wine tiask, unfidsco davino. Sallad oil ; a coach horse ; a fire shovel; a night-cap.
Insoldta olio carrbzza cavdllo fuoco palclta nottebarrelta. A silver dish, un pidlto d' argento ; a brick house, zina casa di mattoni ; a Holland shirt, U7ia camicia di tdad' Oldnda ; brass money, moncta di rame. A scarlet cloak ; silk stockings ; a wooden box ; a horn Scarldtto mantello seta ciilzelta legno cassa corno comb ; a gold ring. To play on the spinet; to pla upon tlie harpsichord; to play Spinclfa graviccmbalo at tennis ; at onibra, at bowls. On thf Degrees of Comparison, and on Superlative Nouns. The comparison of equality may be ex- pressed likewise bv allrcltanto, and in such case the particle che must connect the second member of the comparison ; as, vou are as rich as your brother, stele allretlanto ricco che vostro fratello.
By the definite article of the genitive case. By the definite of the same case. Tims in the above examples we would say, Antonio si jnosfra piii as t a to che or di pietro— Maria semhra piii modeslache, or di voi. Questa casa j are piii bella che or di quella ecc 8. There are diflerent ways of expressing the superla- tives in Italian. These are called absolute superlatives. Almost all the superlative adverbs are formed by changing the last vowel of the superlative into amente ; as, irom ricchissimo, very rich; richissimamente, richly; fell' cissinw, very happy ; felicissimamcnte, happily.
The most proud of men ; the most pernicious of all crimes ; orgoglioso uomo pernicioso tutto delitto those that seem to be the most ingenious are not always the colbro sembrano essere ingegnnso non sono sempre most learned ; he is very humom'some: On Dimitnttive, ylugmeutalhe, and Collective Nouns. From the most part of the Italian nouns others are formed which diminish or enlarge the signification by some particular terminations: The terminations of he diminutives are the following, viz.
Some adverbs have likewise their diminutives; as, bmino, from bene, tolerably well ; adagino, from adagio, j rettv slowly ; pocliino, or poeolino, from poro, rather little. It must be observed, that some nouns of feminine gender become masculine, in taking the terminations in liio. Tu sei un hel donndne. Da nnn trnvdr nella lua leltafondo. Thou art a fine masculine woman ; the extent of thy beauty is not to be measured. Ring the gieat bell ; behold the assembly of widows which enter. Some others ending in Aglia are generally taken in a vile and despicable meaning; as, from plebe, pleBdglia, the scum of the people ; sbirra, sbirrdglia, the whole body of catchpoles ; gente, gentdglia, the ritlraff of the people.
Take notice that collective nouns in the singular never or seldom agree with a plural, as they often do in English. A little boy ; a little girl ; a little pretty creature ; a pretty ragdzzo ragdzza creatura little house; a young hare; a little cap; a very small book ; a casa lepre berretta ruscello pretty little woman; a little table; a vulgar woman ; a large donna tdvola house; small rain; a great large drawing-room; a great large pioggia sal a hat; a great ugly hat; wicked people, or very despical le cappello gente people; grossly iniquitous; a paltry poet; a smatterer in ribdldo poeta philosophy; a great quantity of poultry; a quantity of Jilosofo polio meat ; the mobility of the people.
Veneroni ju this, as well as in many other instances, is likewise wrong. On the Numerical Nouns. Observations on Cardinal Numbers. All these nouns are indeclinable, except those mentioned in the foregoing note, and in that at p. Observations on Ordinal Nouns. H And when we add to any of the even hundreds eleven or more, we must then express them by their respective car- dinal denominations, and the tens with their fractions by the ordinal numbers ; thus, the th,?
The same word means also the date of the year. Una before a feminine noun beginning with a consonant; as, tma tavola, one table ; nna signora, one lady. Un'' with an apostrophe is put before a feminine noun be- ginning with a vowel ; as, ttn'' anhna, one soul. Gliune and Ic iine, pL masc. Ambi, however, is not to be niei wiili siimle in the best classics; but in compo- sition is very frequent, as tiie following words will show. Amendiiiii used with authority for the masculine, as ambidui; and for liie feminine, amevdiaie, usul ixti ombe.
Entrambi, used as amhidid; and for the feminine, tntrcimbe, used as nmhi'. Tiammdnui, used foi the n as- culine as imbidid, and for the feminiue tramendune, used as ambc. L' uno, e r aUfo, see above. In English, nouns of measure, number and weight, are sometiuu's joined, in the singular form, with numeral adjectives denoting plurality; as fifty foot, six score, ten thousand fnlhoin deep, about an hundred pound weight. In Italian, such nouns must always be put into the plural form, and say cinfju hita picdi feet ; sei ventine scores ; ditci mila hrnccid pmj'ondo rathouisl ; di peso incirca a cento lililne pound-';.
We therefore say Luigi deeimoquurlo, Carlo priino, Giorgio terzo. On Pronouns in general ; and on the Personal or Primil'rce Pronouns in particular. The great variety of pronouns adds a peculiar beauty and precision to the Italian language. Conjunctive or Deriva- tive. Interrogative ; and, 7. This necessary expla- nation was entirely omitted by our Author, and by others is improperly postponed tothe pronouns. AH possible objects to which the proncuns can relate, have been reduced in grammar under three classes: Piicslly's lludiiiients of English Giamniar. If we allude to the person or persons who hear, or are supposed to be addressed by the speaker, the subject is then called the second person.
Of tJic Personal or Primilive Prononns. Tiiey are as follows: Klleno Se, himself, or. I int , Of me, leu. I i te, Of thee I. K i 56 'Nom. Di lui, Of him, Gen. Di lei, Of her Dat. A lui, To hini, Dat. A lei, To her Ace. Da luif From, or by him Abl. Da lei, From or by her Nom. Dinoi, Of us, Gen. Di voi, Of you Dat. A voi, To vou Ace. Diloro, Of them, Gen. From, or by them f Nom. Se, Himself, or themselves Abl. Dase, From, or by himself, or themselves.
RemnrlxS on these Pronouns. I plainly see how much they dislike me. See these de- clensions above, Credendo, cW iofossi fe, mi ha con unbas- tone tidtb roilo ,- mistaking- me for thee, he has bruised me all oyer with a stick, Bocc. After the adverb fo?? In exclamations of joy, or grief, in which the personal pronoun is also put in the fourth case, as in Latin: The pronoun loro, in the dative case, is elegantly used without the article: The moderns in writing or speaking, put the pronoun di lui, di hi, between the definite article and substantive in the shape of possessive pronouns ; as, il di lui, or il di lei onore, his, or her honour; but the classics have said, with more propriety, Vonore di lui, or di lei.
Ill poetry is used vui, for roi, nui, for iioi ; as, facciam tioi quel, che si pub far per mti Ariosto , let us do all hat it is ill our power to do ; in qucslo stato son donna per xuiy Pctrarca , in this situation 1 am on your account, my fair one. X Sec a Konian coirupliun of tlic pronouu medcsiimi in the fiiM iiule to ibia Letlure. Brutus uccise SO, Before we dismiss the subject of personal pronouns, it will he proper to mention a peculiarity of the Italian lan- guage sMih respect to them.
A lor Signore, S C.
Piumini da canto : per coro a una e a due voci bianche
Da lor Signore, 3fc. I liave now transposed tliciu liere, where they may be with equal propiicty, as before the conjugations of verbs. JJut since, as it was observed, in yenteel com- ]: Thej are as follows. Their most obvious mean- ings ; and, 2. Their proper place in a sentence. Most obvious Meanings of the foregoing Pronouns. Mi when dative is equivalent to a me ; as, il re mi con- cede ial grdzia viz. Mi when accusative is equivalent to me ; as, Dio mi vede viz. Ti dative is equivalent to a te ; as, io ti parlero domcini viz parlero a te , I will speak to thee to-morrow.
O, or ne dative is equivalent to a noi ; as, corrcrdnno oUe case, t- Vavcre ei or?! I'nhc- ri'mno a noi, they will run to our house, and steal our pro- perty from us. Ci, or ne, acciusative is equivalent to j? Just in the same way as io cliedi loro. Lo or il is equivalent to lui ; as, per lo comune bene dclla Rcfmblica, lo dichiiirdrono Re, e loro SigfiSre, Bocc.
Cantdtido am grandissima fcsta, e solenndd il rtcdrono alia chiefa, viz. Nothing can be uioic frivohms iliaii the Ui. Im is equivalent to lei; as. Le when dative is equivalent to a hi ; as, la donna con la sua fantc. Nancy, who knew the inclination of her sisters, roused in them such a desire ol" it, that Sec. A'e sometimes is an adverb of lace: Position of the foregoing Pronouns. The con j II net ivf and relative pronouns are more frequently put before the veil: U, to the singular iiiiiiibfr; see note f at p. The scholar, therefore, is to consider them for the most part as necessary only in common conversation, and in writings of a familiar and easy turn.
The oblique cases of personal pronouns may likewise be placed before the verb, as well as after it, instead of the conjunctive pronouns ; as, io parlo a vol, non a lui, I speak to you, not to him ; or a vol parlo, non a lui. This point will be farther elucidated by the following examples: It will probably be here asked, if the above-mention- ed different ways of placing the conjunctive or personal pro- nouns are all equally good ; or if one is better than the other?
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