Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition)


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Please try your request again later. Are you an author? Help us improve our Author Pages by updating your bibliography and submitting a new or current image and biography. Learn more at Author Central. Popularity Popularity Featured Price: Low to High Price: High to Low Avg. Warum die Menschen sesshaft wurden: Only 3 left in stock - order soon.

Only 11 left in stock - order soon. Available for immediate download. Warum wir siegen wollen: Available for download now. Only 2 left in stock - order soon. Reichholf , Klaus Wiegandt. Only 6 left in stock - order soon. Woher unsere Fabeltiere kommen German Edition Apr 05, Only 1 left in stock - order soon. This effect was also seen during the acid tolerance testing reported here. Final acid concentrations of 1. Without acid addition complete conversion of CO 2 in the headspace was achieved.

However, maximum methane production of 0. In both analyzed inoculation materials Methanobacterium species were by far the most dominant Archaea with The microbial composition of the two analyzed samples is in accordance with the results obtained for the carbon conversion and product formation.

In contrast, methane was produced almost exclusively in trials representing continuous operation where acetogenic bacteria accounted only up to In summary, the acid accumulation monitored during reactor start-up of a biomethanation unit is most likely to result from the microbial composition present. Nevertheless, complete adaptation to. Towards a standardization of biomethane potential tests.

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Production of biogas from different organic materials is a most interesting source of renewable energy. The biomethane potential BMP of these materials has to be determined to get insight in design parameters for anaerobic digesters. Although several norms and guidelines for BMP tests exist, inter-laboratory tests regularly show high variability of BMPs for the same substrate.

A workshop was held in June , in Leysin, Switzerland, with over 40 attendees from 30 laboratories around the world, to agree on common solutions to the conundrum of inconsistent BMP test results. This paper presents the consensus of the intense roundtable discussions and cross-comparison of methodologies used in respective laboratories. Compulsory elements for the validation of BMP results were defined. They include the minimal number of replicates, the request to carry out blank and positive control assays, a criterion for the test duration, details on BMP calculation, and last but not least criteria for rejection of the BMP tests.

Finally, recommendations on items that strongly influence the outcome of BMP tests such as inoculum characteristics, substrate preparation, test setup, and data analysis are presented to increase the probability of obtaining validated and reproducible results. Life cycle assessment of biomethane use in Argentina. Renewable substitutes for natural gas, such as biogas, require adequate treatment to remove impurities.

This paper presents the life cycle and environmental impact of upgrading biogas using absorption-desorption process with three different solvents: The results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories, and an economic analysis showed that water is the most feasible solvent for obtaining the lowest payback period.

This analysis includes three different sources for biogas production and two end uses for biomethane. The use of different wastes as sources results in different environmental impacts depending on the type of energy used in the anaerobic digestion. The same situation occurs when considering the use of biomethane as a domestic fuel or for power generation. Using energy from biogas to replace conventional energy sources in production and upgrading biogas significantly reduce the environmental impacts of processes.

Evaluation of the biomethane potential from multiple waste streams for a proposed community scale anaerobic digester. This paper examines the biomethane potential from organic waste for a proposed community scale anaerobic digester in a rural town. The biomethane potential test is used to assess the suitability of waste streams for biomethane production and to examine the variation in biomethane potential between waste sub-streams.

A methodology for accurately estimating the biomethane potential from multiple heterogeneous organic waste substrates is sought. Five main waste streams were identified as possible substrates for biogas production, namely Abattoir waste consisting of paunch and de-watered activated sludge ; cheese factory effluent; commercial and domestic food waste; pig slurry and waste water treatment sludge. The kinetic behaviour of the biomethane production in the batch test is also examined. The objective of the paper is to suggest an optimum substrate mix in terms of biomethane yield per unit substrate for the proposed anaerobic digester.

This should maximize the yield of biomethane per capital investment. Food waste displayed the highest biomethane yield m n 3 t -1 followed by cheese waste 38 m n 3 t -1 and abattoir waste 36 m n 3 t It was suggested that waste water sludge 16 m n 3 t -1 and pig slurry 4 m n 3 t -1 should not be digested. However, the biomethane potential test does not give information on the continuous operation of an anaerobic digester. Conceptual schematic for capture of biomethane released from hydroelectric power facilities.

Though dam-related biomethane was identified in the s, its capture has not been sufficiently discussed. A great amount of bubbles would be formed by the rapid drop in water pressure i. Modeling of microbial induced corrosion on metallic pipelines resulting from biomethane and the integrity impact of biomethane on non-metallic pipelines. The objective of this project is to understand key elements related to promoting the successful delivery of: This project focuses on two key areas of concern: The effect of microbial induced corros Energetic analysis of various scenarios.

The energy consumption models of biomethane production system were established, which are more rigorous and universal than the empirical data reported by previous biomethane system energetic assessment work. The energy efficiencies of different scenarios considering factors such as two digestion modes, two heating modes of digester, with or without heat exchange between slurry and feedstock, and four crude biogas upgrading technologies were evaluated. Results showed the scenario employing thermophilic digestion and high pressure water scrubbing technology, with heat exchange between feedstock and slurry, and heat demand of digester supplied by the energy source outside the system has the highest energy efficiency The new H2A Biomethane model was developed to estimate the levelized cost of biomethane by using the framework of the vetted original H2A models for hydrogen production and delivery.

For biomethane production, biogas from sources such as dairy farms and landfills is upgraded by a cleanup process. The model also estimates the cost to compress and transport the product gas via the pipeline to export it to the natural gas grid or any other potential end-use site. Spent coffee enhanced biomethane potential via an integrated hydrothermal carbonization-anaerobic digestion process. This study reports the implications of using spent coffee hydrochar as substrate for anaerobic digestion AD processes.

Spent coffee hydrochars were characterized in terms of ultimate, proximate and higher heating value HHV , and their theoretical bio-methane yield evaluated using Boyle-Buswell equation and compared to the experimental values. The results were then analyzed using the modified Gompertz equation to determine the main AD evolution parameters. Different hydrochar properties were related to AD process performances. Microbiological biogas upgrading could become a promising technology for production of methane CH 4. This is, storage of irregular generated electricity results in a need to store electricity generated at peak times for use at non-peak times, which could be achieved in an intermediate step by electrolysis of water to molecular hydrogen H 2.

Microbiological biogas upgrading can be performed by contacting carbon dioxide CO 2 , H 2 and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Archaea either in situ in an anaerobic digester, or ex situ in a separate bioreactor. In situ microbiological biogas upgrading is indicated to require thorough bioprocess development, because only low volumetric CH 4 production rates and low CH 4 fermentation offgas content have been achieved.

Higher volumetric production rates are shown for the ex situ microbiological biogas upgrading compared to in situ microbiological biogas upgrading. Cascading biomethane energy systems for sustainable green gas production in a circular economy. Biomethane is a flexible energy vector that can be used as a renewable fuel for both the heat and transport sectors.

Recent EU legislation encourages the production and use of advanced, third generation biofuels with improved sustainability for future energy systems. The integration of technologies such as anaerobic digestion, gasification, and power to gas, along with advanced feedstocks such as algae will be at the forefront in meeting future sustainability criteria and achieving a green gas supply for the gas grid. This paper explores the relevant pathways in which an integrated biomethane industry could potentially materialise and identifies and discusses the latest biotechnological advances in the production of renewable gas.

Three scenarios of cascading biomethane systems are developed. Life cycle greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol, biomethane and limonene production from citrus waste. The production of biofuel from cellulosic residues can have both environmental and financial benefits. A particular benefit is that it can alleviate competition for land conventionally used for food and feed production.

In this research, we investigate greenhouse gas GHG emissions associated with the production of ethanol, biomethane , limonene and digestate from citrus waste, a byproduct of the citrus processing industry. The study represents the first life cycle-based evaluations of citrus waste biorefineries. Two biorefinery configurations are studied—a large biorefinery that converts citrus waste into ethanol, biomethane , limonene and digestate, and a small biorefinery that converts citrus waste into biomethane , limonene and digestate.

Ethanol is assumed to be used as E85, displacing gasoline as a light-duty vehicle fuel; biomethane displaces natural gas for electricity generation, limonene displaces acetone in solvents, and digestate from the anaerobic digestion process displaces synthetic fertilizer. System expansion and two allocation methods energy, market value are considered to determine emissions of co-products. Considerable GHG reductions would be achieved by producing and utilizing the citrus waste-based products in place of the petroleum-based or other non-renewable products.

The life cycle GHG emissions vary substantially depending upon biomethane leakage rate, feedstock GHG emissions and the method to determine emissions assigned to co-products. All the pretreatments tested led to solubilization of the organic matter, with a maximum lignin reduction of Under this pretreatment condition, significant increase in cumulative methane yield was observed Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for biogas and biomethane analysis.

The gas industry is going to be revolutionized by being able to generate bioenergy from biomass. The production of biomethane - a green substitute of natural gas - is growing in Europe and the United-States of America. Biomethane can be injected into the gas grid or used as fuel for vehicles after compression. Due to various biomass inputs e. All previous publications dealing with biogas analysis reported that hundreds of chemicals from ten chemical families do exist in trace amounts in biogas. This is the reason why the benefit of implementing two-dimensional gas chromatography for the characterization of biogas and biomethane samples was evaluated.

In a first step, a standard mixture of 89 compounds belonging to 10 chemical families, representative of those likely to be found, was used to optimize the analytical method. A set consisting of a non-polar and a polar columns, respectively in the first and the second dimension, was used with a modulation period of six seconds. Applied to ten samples of raw biogas, treated biogas and biomethane collected on 4 industrial sites two MSW landfills, one anaerobic digester on a wastewater treatment plant and one agricultural biogas plant , this analytical method provided a "fingerprint" of the gases composition at the molecular level in all biogas and biomethane samples.

Bio-methane from an-aerobic digestion using activated carbon adsorption. There is an increasing global demand for carbon-neutral bio-methane from an-aerobic digestion AD to be injected into national gas grids. Bio-gas, a methane -rich energy gas, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic matter through an-aerobic conditions where the presence of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide affects its performance.

Although the microbiological process in the AD can be tailored to enhance the bio-gas composition, physical treatment is needed to convert the bio-gas into bio-methane. Water washing is the most common method for upgrading bio-gas for bio-methane production, but its large use of water is challenging towards industrial scale-up.

It is envisioned that this method can significantly aid the production of sustainable bio-methane. Waste-to- biomethane Concept Application: The current needs of sustainable urban development are rising. As the transport sector expands, emissions continue to rise. Due to their negative impact on human health and the environment, air quality requirements are becoming more and more stringent. At the same time, the amount of waste is increasing. Europe Union policies attempt to relieve the pressure that these two stressors place on urban systems as they themselves expand. Today different solutions are available to decrease greenhouse gas emissions, increase air quality and improve waste management systems.

Among them, waste-to- biomethane for use in urban systems deserves more attention. The paper focuses on application of the concept of waste-to- biomethane and the case study of Valmiera is evaluated. The price of the biomethane was found to be the most sensitive input factor. It is suggested that it should not exceed 0. Such a price can be ensured, if dry fermentation technology is chosen for biogas production. However, from the sustainability perspective, wet fermentation is more preferable due to the introduction of a source-separated organic waste management system in the region and higher gas yields.

Introduction of this alternative requires additional funds which is a question of policy-level decisions. Characterisation and cleaning of biogas from sewage sludge for biomethane production. This study investigates the conversion of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants WWTP into biomethane for automotive fuel or grid injection.

Critical levels were observed in the biogas for of H 2 S and HCl, whose concentrations were and On the other hand, the concentration of halogenated VOCs including tetrachloroethylene and traces of perfluoroalkilated substances, PFAS and mercaptans were relatively low. The presence of HCl is due to clarifying agents, and its removal is necessary in order to meet the required biomethane characteristics: This study also highlights the interference of CO 2 towards HCl if sampling is performed in compliance with the new EU standard for biomethane.

High total volatile silicon TVS was confirmed in sewage sludge biogas, with a major contribution of siloxane D5: Results demonstrate that volatile methyl siloxanes VMS do not represent a critical issue for the VSA upgrading methodology. Biomethane , as a replacement for natural gas, reduces the use of fossil-based sources and supports the intended change from fossil to bio-based industry.

The study assessed different biomethane utilization routes for production of methanol, dimethyl ether DME , and ammonia, as fuel or platform chemicals and combined heat and power CHP. Energy efficiency and environmental impacts of the different pathways was studied in a life cycle perspective covering the technical system from biomass production to the end product.

Among the routes studied, CHP had the highest energy balance and least environmental impact. DME and methanol performed competently in energy balance and environmental impacts in comparison with the ammonia route. DME had the highest total energy output, as fuel, heat, and steam, among the different routes studied. Substituting the bio-based routes for fossil-based alternatives would give a considerable reduction in environmental impacts such as global warming potential and acidification potential for all routes studied, especially CHP, DME, and methanol.

Eutrophication potential was mainly a result of biomass and biomethane production, with marginal differences between the different routes. Potential of fecal waste for the production of biomethane , bioethanol and biodiesel. Fecal waste is an environmental burden that requires proper disposal, which ultimately becomes also an economic burden. Because fecal waste is nutrient-rich and contains a diverse methanogenic community, it has been utilized to produce biomethane via anaerobic digestion.

We measured biomethane production from fecal waste of cows, chickens, goats and humans and compared the microbial community composition before and after anaerobic digestion. We also compared the fecal waste for cellulase production, saccharification and fermentation to produce bioethanol and for lipid content and fatty acid profiles to produce biodiesel.

All fecal waste produced biomethane , with the highest yield of Production of bioethanol was achieved from all samples, with chicken fecal waste yielding as high as 1. Sludge samples exhibited the highest extractable portion of lipids Utilization of fecal waste for the production of biofuels is environmentally and economically beneficial.

Biomethane production and physicochemical characterization of anaerobically digested teff Eragrostis tef straw pretreated by sodium hydroxide. The biogas production potential and biomethane content of teff straw through pretreatment by NaOH was investigated. The effects of NaOH as pretreatment factor on the biodegradability of teff straw, changes in main compositions and enhancement of anaerobic digestion were analyzed.

Investigation of changes in chemical compositions and physical microstructure indicated that there was 4.

The results further revealed that NaOH pretreatment changed the structural compositions and lignin network, and improved biogas production from teff straw. Biological disintegration of microalgae for biomethane recovery-prediction of biodegradability and computation of energy balance. The present study investigates the synergistic effect of combined bacterial disintegration on mixed microalgal biomass for energy efficient biomethane generation. The rate of microalgal biomass lysis, enhanced biodegradability, and methane generation were used as indices to assess efficiency of the disintegration.

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The energy balance analysis of this combined bacterial disintegration of microalgal biomass provides surplus positive net energy 1. Life cycle assessment of biohydrogen and biomethane production and utilisation as a vehicle fuel. For food waste treated by batch processes the two stage system gave high hydrogen yields Reduction in environmental burdens compared with diesel was achieved, supported by the diversion of waste from landfill. For wheat feed, the semi continuously fed two stage process gave low hydrogen yields 7. The process delivers reduction in fossil fuel burdens, and improvements in process efficiencies will lead to reduction in CO2 burdens compared with diesel.

The study highlights the importance of understanding and optimising biofuel production parameters according to the feedstock utilised. Anaerobic digestion for simultaneous sewage sludge treatment and CO biomethanation: Syngas is produced by thermal gasification of both nonrenewable and renewable sources including biomass and coal, and it consists mainly of CO, CO2, and H2. In this paper we aim to bioconvert CO in the syngas to CH4. A novel technology for simultaneous sewage sludge treatment and CO biomethanation in an anaerobic reactor was presented.

Batch experiments showed that CO was inhibitory to methanogens, but not to bacteria, at CO partial pressure between 0. During anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge supplemented with CO added through a hollow fiber membrane HFM module in continuous thermophilic reactors, CO did not inhibit the process even at a pressure as high as 1. Complete consumption of CO was achieved with CO gas retention time of 0. Results from high-throughput sequencing analysis showed clear differences of the microbial community structures between the samples from liquid and biofilm on the HFM in the reactor with CO addition.

Species close to Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus were the two main archaeal species involved in CO biomethanation. However, the two species were distributed differently in the liquid phase and in the biofilm. Although the carboxidotrophic activities test showed that CO was converted by both archaea and bacteria, the bacterial species responsible for CO conversion are unknown.

Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process. The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage biohydrogen and biomethanation batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment ALP was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse.

This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency Biohydrogen and biomethane production sustained by untreated matrices and alternative application of compost waste. Biohydrogen and biomethane production offers many advantages for environmental protection over the fossil fuels or the existing physical-chemical methods for hydrogen and methane synthesis.

The aim of this study is focused on the exploitation of several samples from the composting process: These samples were tested for biohydrogen and biomethane production, thus obtaining second generation biofuels and resulting in a novel possibility to manage renewable waste biomasses.


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Hydrogen could be produced with a fast kinetic in the range 0. It was observed that the composition of each sample influenced significantly the gas production. It was also observed that the addition of different water amounts play a crucial role in the development of hydrogen or methane. This parameter can be used to push towards the alternative production of one or another gas.

Hydrogen and methane production was detected spontaneously from these matrices, without additional sources of nutrients or any pre-treatment, suggesting that they can be used as an additional inoculum or feed into single or two-stage plants. This might allow the use of compost with low quality as soil improver for alternative and further applications. Von eingebetteten Systemen zu Cyber-Physical Systems.

Einige Anwendungsfelder werden angesprochen. Es zeigt sich, dass dies effizienter und wesentlich kurzfristiger in unserem verteilten Vorgehen geschehen kann als in traditionellen Verfahren. Wet air oxidation pretreatment of biomethanated distillery effluent: The HPLC analysis indicated that the pretreatment facilitated degradation of major color containing compounds-namely melanoidins, up to This research applied sodium hydroxide NaOH pretreatment and trace elements to improve biomethane production when using corn stover for anaerobic digestion.

Full-factor experimental tests identified the best combination of trace elements with the NaOH pretreatment, indicating that the best combination was with 1. The best combination was obtained 5—9 days shorter than T90 and maintained good system operation stability.


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The results showed that NaOH pretreatment and adding trace elements improve corn stover biodegradability and enhance biomethane production. Biogas is a promising sustainable and renewable energy alternative to reduce the dependence on fossil fuel. In Malaysia, the conversion of palm oil mill effluent POME to bioenergy has recently been expanded due to its high potential in generating energy.

However, without a proper treatment and management, POME could be harmful to environment because it emits greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere and could also pollutes the watercourses if discharge directly due to the high acidity and chemical oxygen demand COD content. Many initiatives have been taken by the government towards sustainable development.

Therefore, more efforts need to be practiced to improve and upscale the technology for a better waste management. Physicochemical characteristics and the biogas production of POME were measured. The BMP test under mesophilic condition was conducted for 23 consecutive days to measure the biogas production. The POME produced The results also found that the methane CH4 and carbon dioxide CO2 gases produced with During the first 8—10 days of the mesophilic stage, the reactor is not fed so that the inoculum, which is generally a mesophilic anaerobic sludge, may be adapted to the organic solid waste.

Between mesophilic and thermophilic conditions the reactor is still not fed in an effort to prevent possible imbalances in the proces. As a consequence, the start-up and stabilization of the biomethanization performance described in the literature require, at least, around days. In this sense, a new strategy for the start-up and stabilization phases is presented in this study. This approach allows an important reduction in the overall time necessary for these stages in an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor CSTR operated at thermophilic-dry conditions for treating the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste OFMSW: Biomethanation potential for co-digestion of municipal solid waste and rice straw: Rice straw RS contains a high amount of lignocellulosic materials which are difficult to degrade without thermal pretreatment.

In the present study, co-digestion of municipal solid waste MSW and RS was carried out in three different ratios i. The increased use of terrestrial crops for biofuel production and the associated environmental, social and ethical issues have led to a search for alternative biomass materials. Terrestrial crops offer excellent biogas recovery, but compete directly with food production, requiring farmland, fresh water and fertilizers.

Using marine macroalgae for the production of biogas circumvents these problems. Their potential lies in their chemical composition, their global abundance and knowledge of their growth requirements and occurrence patterns. Such a biomass industry should focus on the use of residual and waste biomass to avoid competition with the biomass requirements of the seaweed food industry, which has occurred in the case of terrestrial biomass.

Overabundant seaweeds represent unutilized biomass in shallow water, beach and coastal areas. These eutrophication processes damage marine ecosystems and impair local tourism; this biomass could serve as biogas feedstock material. Residues from biomass processing in the seaweed industry are also of interest.

This is a rapidly growing industry with algae now used in the comestible, pharmaceutical and cosmetic sectors. The simultaneous production of combustible biomethane and disposal of undesirable biomass in a synergistic waste management system is a concept with environmental and resource-conserving advantages. Worin dann das Verstehen besteht, wenn im Ergebnis ein Verfahren von den Kindern erfolgreich abgearbeitet wird, ist nicht unmittelbar zu sehen.

Effect of dilution and ash supplement on the bio-methane potential of palm oil mill effluent POME. This study aimed to evaluate the bio-methane potential of POME at different dilutions , 80, 60, 40, and 20 percent of initial POME and different pH dues to different levels of ash supplement. Five different amounts of ash were added to digesters 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 grams of ash were added to ml of POME respectively. The results showed that POME without dilution gave highest cumulative biogas ml. Finally, the results of experiment 2, this adding ash into POME increased pH as well as enhanced the biogas production.

It was found that adding ash at the ash: POME ratio of 2 g: The addition of ash in the raw waste of POME gave the pH in the range of criteria and highest bio-methane potential. The modified Gompertz equation, Schnute as well as Monod kinetic models were used to compare the data from the experiments. While Monod kinetics provides valuable insight in explaining what could happen behind the systematic trends. An optimizing start-up strategy for a bio-methanator. This paper presents an optimizing start-up strategy for a bio-methanator.

The goal of the control strategy is to maximize the outflow rate of methane in anaerobic digestion processes, which can be described by a two-population model. The methodology relies on a thorough analysis of the system dynamics and involves the solution of two optimization problems: The latter is a classical optimal control problem, which can be solved using the maximum principle of Pontryagin. The proposed control law is of the bang-bang type.

The process is driven from an initial state to a small neighborhood of the optimal steady state by switching the manipulated variable dilution rate from the minimum to the maximum value at a certain time instant. Then the dilution rate is set to the optimal value and the system settles down in the optimal steady state. This control law ensures the convergence of the system to the optimal steady state and substantially increases its stability region.

The region of attraction of the steady state corresponding to maximum production of methane is considerably enlarged. In some cases, which are related to the possibility of selecting the minimum dilution rate below a certain level, the stability region of the optimal steady state equals the interior of the state space. Aside its efficiency, which is evaluated not only in terms of biogas production but also from the perspective of treatment of the organic load, the strategy is also characterized by simplicity, being thus appropriate for implementation in real-life systems.

Another important advantage is its generality: Biohydrogen, biomethane and bioelectricity as crucial components of biorefinery of organic wastes: Finally, biohydrogen, biomethane and bioelectricity could contribute to significant improvements for solid organic waste management in agricultural regions, as well as in urban areas. Biomethane potential of industrial paper wastes and investigation of the methanogenic communities involved. Cellulose-containing waste products from the agricultural or industrial sector are potentially one of the largest sources of renewable energy on earth.

In this study, the biomethane potential BMP of two types of industrial paper wastes, wood and pulp residues WR and PR, respectively , were evaluated under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, and various pretreatment methods were applied in the attempt to increase the methane potential during anaerobic digestion. All pretreatments investigated in this study with the exception of the alkaline pretreatment of PR were found to increase the BMP of two paper industry wastes.

However, the low recalcitrance level of the PR resulted in the pretreatments being less effective in increasing BMP when compared with those for WR. These results were supported by the physico-chemical data. A combined application of ultrasound and enzymatic pretreatment was found to be the best strategy for increasing methane yields. The retention time of substrates in the reactors strongly influenced the BMP of wastes subjected to the different pretreatments.

In sludges from both paper wastes subjected to the various pretreatments, mixotrophic Methanosarcina species were found to dominate the community, accompanied by a consortium of hydrogenotrophic genera. Pretreating industrial paper wastes could be a potentially viable option for increasing the overall degradation efficiency and decreasing reactor retention time for the digestion of complex organic matter such as lignocellulose or hemicellulose.

This would help reduce the environmental burden generated from paper production. Although there were minor differences in the methanogenic communities depending on the temperature of anaerobic digestion, there was little effect of substrate. Sodium thiosulphate induced immobilized bacterial disintegration of sludge: An energy efficient and cost effective platform for sludge management and biomethanation. The present study aimed to gain better insights into profitable biomethanation through sodium thiosulphate induced immobilized protease secreting bacterial disintegration STS-IPBD of sludge.

STS disperse the flocs at 0. Immobilization of bacteria increases the hydrolytic activity of cells towards effective liquefaction of sludge. Floc dispersion and immobilization of bacteria imparts a major role in biomethanation as the methane generation 0. The palm oil industry experienced significant improvement in its production level from to from the established companies, medium scale mills MSM , small scale and other private holdings SS and OPH groups.

However, the same cannot be said for treatment of the palm oil mill effluent POME produced. During this period about 10 million cubic metres of POME was produced translating into biomethane potential of A linear growth model developed to predict the equivalent carbon dioxide CO 2 emissions indicates that if the biomethane is not harnessed then by the untreated POME could produce 0. Energy recovery potential of a mesophilic co-digester treating OFMSW and primary sludge at an integrated biomethanization plant was investigated based on feasibility study results.

Since landfilling is still the main solid waste disposal method in Turkey, land scarcity will become one of the most important obstacles. Restrictions for biodegradable waste disposal to sanitary landfills in EU Landfill Directive and uncontrolled long-term contamination with gas emissions and leachate necessitate alternative management strategies due to rapid increase in MSW production.

Moreover, since energy contribution from renewable resources will be required more in the future with increasing oil prices and dwindling supplies of conventional energy sources, the significance of biogas as a renewable fuel has been increased in the last decade. Methane heating value was recovered at maximum of 6. A rotation period of 9. Eutrophication is a phenomenon which can rapidly generate masses of marine macroalgae, particularly in areas with high nutrient pollution. Washed ashore, this biomass impairs coastal tourism and negatively affects the coastal ecosystem.

To improve biomethane recovery, thermo-acidic pretreatment was applied to the biomass prior to biomethanation to disintegrate the biomass macrostructure. Acid hydrolysis was successfully triggered with 0. To reduce the necessity for input material, HCl was replaced by the acidic waste product flue gas condensate FGC. Continuous anaerobic digestion trials of RM were conducted for three hydraulic retention times, showing the feasibility of monodigestion. The effect of storage conditions on microbial community composition and biomethane potential in a biogas starter culture.

A new biogas process is initiated by adding a microbial community, typically in the form of a sample collected from a functional biogas plant. This inoculum has considerable impact on the initial performance of a biogas reactor, affecting parameters such as stability, biogas production yields and the overall efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Longer storage times resulted in reduced methane yields and slower production kinetics for all storage conditions, with room temperature and frozen samples consistently giving the best and worst performance, respectively.

Both storage time and temperature affected the microbial community composition and methanogenic activity. In particular, fluctuations in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes were observed. Interestingly, a shift from hydrogenotrophic methanogens to methanogens with the capacity to perform acetoclastic methanogensis was observed upon prolonged storage.

Modelling a demand driven biogas system for production of electricity at peak demand and for production of biomethane at other times. Four feedstocks were assessed for use in a demand driven biogas system. Biomethane potential BMP assays were conducted for grass silage, food waste, Laminaria digitata and dairy cow slurry.

Semi-continuous trials were undertaken for all feedstocks, assessing biogas and biomethane production. Three kinetic models of the semi-continuous trials were compared. A first order model most accurately correlated with gas production in the pulse fed semi-continuous system. This model was developed for production of electricity on demand, and biomethane upgrading.

The model examined a theoretical grass silage digester that would produce kWe in a continuous fed system. Adaptation to demand driven biogas required min to produce sufficient methane to run a 2MWe combined heat and power CHP unit for 60min. The upgrading system was dispatched 71min following CHP shutdown. Effect of cobalt supplementation and fractionation on the biological response in the biomethanization of Olive Mill Solid Waste.

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Due to the low trace metals concentration in the Olive Mill Solid Waste OMSW , a proposed strategy to improve its biomethanization is the supplementation of key metals to enhance the microorganism activity. Among essential trace metals, cobalt has been reported to have a crucial role in anaerobic degradation. This study evaluates the effect of cobalt supplementation to OMSW, focusing on the connection between fractionation of cobalt in the system and the biological response.

The highest biological responses was found in a range from 0. It was found that the dissolved cobalt fraction is more accurately related with the biological response than the total cobalt. The total cobalt is distorted by the contribution of dissolved and non-dissolved inert fractions. A feasibility study on the bioconversion of CO2 and H2 to biomethane by gas sparging through polymeric membranes.

In this study, the potential of a pilot hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor for the conversion of H2 and CO2 to CH4 was evaluated. H2 mass transfer to the liquid phase was identified as the limiting step for the conversion, and kLa values of h -1 were reached in the bioreactor by sparging gas through the membrane module. This proof-of-concept study verified that gas sparging through a membrane module can efficiently transfer H2 from gas to liquid phase and that the conversion of H2 and CO2 to biomethane is feasible on a pilot scale at noteworthy load rates. Potential development of compressed bio-methane gas production from pig farms and elephant grass silage for transportation in Thailand.

This research project evaluated biogas production using anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and elephant grass silage in large scale to delivered transportation directly for cars. The procedure was enhanced by using molecular sieve, activated carbon for removal of moisture and CO2 membrane H2S and CO2 respectively. The CBG production, methane gas improvement and performance were evaluated before entering the delivered systems according to the energy standards.

The production of CBG is advantageous to strengthen the Thailand biogas market. Hybrid solid anaerobic digestion batch: An experimental apparatus was constructed to perform hybrid solid anaerobic digestion batch processing of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The fresh organic fraction to inoculum ratio used to enhance the anaerobic process start-up was 0. The process was conducted by spreading the percolate on top of the mixture.

The percolate was stored in a separate section of the apparatus with a mean hydraulic retention time of about 1 day. During the process, acetate, butyrate and propionate in the percolate reached concentrations ranging from to 11 mg L In spite of these high concentrations, the biomethane produced from both the solid and the percolate was quite high, at about NL kg VS The digestate obtained at the end of the run showed rather good features for being classified as an organic fertilizer according to Italian law.

Performance and microbial community analysis of the anaerobic reactor with coke oven gas biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading. A new method for simultaneous coke oven gas COG biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading in anaerobic reactor was developed in this study. With pH control at 8. Production of biomethane from palm oil mill effluent POME with fed batch system in beam-shaped digester.

Palm oil mill effluent POME is the biggest liquid waste which is produced from palm oil production. To reduce the levels of pollution caused by POME, is necessary to do stages of processing using a biological process that involves aerobic and anaerobic bacteria so that it can be utilized as a new product that has economic value, one is biogas. The processing into biogas in anaerobic performed by fed batch system. In the ratio between POME and activated microorganismes are The process of anaerobic fermentation in fed batch is done by time variation of the addition of the substrate.

The mixture of POME and activated microorganismes were fermented for a month and then after one month substrates were added gradually as much as 1 liter into the digester with a variety of additional time are 1, 2, and 5 days. The interval of addition of the substrate give effect to the pH and the quantity of biogas produced. The highest increasing of the quantity of biomethane was Yearlong semi-continuous operation of thermophilic two-stage anaerobic digesters amended with biochar for enhanced biomethane production.

This study aimed to scale up an integrated waste-to-energy system for producing pipelinequality biomethane from shake flasks experiments to two-stage digester systems with semicontinuous operation. The yearlong operation was successfully conducted to compare the performance of thermophilic anaerobic digestion AD of sewage sludge amended with corn stover biochar CSBC and pine biochar PBC to the control under various conditions. The biochar supplementation also led to a substantial increase of the macro- and micro-nutrients P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe by up to 33 times in the digestate, increasing its fertilizer value.

Finally, microbial community structure and dynamics were also investigated and compared, and in particular, CSBC promoted the abundance of Clostridia and Methanosarcina. Collectively, this study proves that pyro-biochar as an effective additive material enhances AD performance with continuous operation and that CSBC shows greater potential. Biomethanation of vegetable market waste in an anaerobic baffled reactor: Effect of effluent recirculation and carbon mass balance analysis. In the present study, feasibility of biomethanation of vegetable market waste in a 4-chambered anaerobic baffled reactor ABR was investigated at 30d hydraulic retention time and organic loading rate of 0.

Indicators of process stability viz. Corresponding biogas and methane yields of 0. Process efficiency of the ABR for vegetable waste methanation, which is indicated by carbon recovery factor showed that, nearly Effect of surfactant assisted sonic pretreatment on liquefaction of fruits and vegetable residue: Characterization, acidogenesis, biomethane yield and energy ratio. The present study explored the disintegration potential of fruits and vegetable residue through sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS assisted sonic pretreatment SSP.

In SSP method, initially the biomass barrier lignin was removed using SDS at different dosage, subsequently it was sonically disintegrated. The effect of SSP were assessed based on dissolved organic release DOR of fruits and vegetable waste and specific energy input. The energy ratio obtained was 0. The effect of seasonal variation on biomethane production from seaweed and on application as a gaseous transport biofuel. Biomethane produced from seaweed may be used as a transport biofuel. Seasonal variation will have an effect on this industry. Laminaria digitata, a typical Irish brown seaweed species, shows significant seasonal variation both in proximate, ultimate and biochemical composition.

The highest yield per mass collected of 53m 3 CH4t -1 was achieved in August, which is 4. A seaweed cultivation area of 11,ha would be required to satisfy the target for advanced biofuels in Ireland, of 1. Zu einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie des Lernens und Lehrens der biologischen Evolution. Die Ergebnisse sind in einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie zusammengefasst, welche aus drei verschiedenen Aspekten besteht: Diese Theorie kann in neuen Experimenten getestet und weiter entwickelt werden.

Implementation of an adaptive controller for the startup and steady-state running of a biomethanation process operated in the CSTR mode. An adaptive control algorithm has been implemented on a biomethanation process to maintain propionate concentration, a stable variable, at a given low value, by steering the dilution rate. It was thereby expected to ensure the stability of the process during the startup and during steady-state running with an acceptable performance.

The methane pilot reactor was operated in the completely mixed, once-through mode and computer-controlled during days. The results yielded the real-life validation of the adaptive control algorithm, and documented the stability and acceptable performance expected.

Performance of sorghum cultivars for biomass quality and biomethane yield grown in semi-arid area of Pakistan. Biomass is a promising renewable energy source and its significance is escalating in the context of climate change and depletion of fossil foils. This study was conducted for two consecutive years and , using five sorghum cultivars, i. The results revealed that sorghum cultivars responded differently in terms of growth, biomass yield, chemical composition, and methane yield.

Cultivars Jawar produced maximum leaf area index, leaf area duration, crop growth rate, plant height, and leaves per plant, however, they were comparable with Sorghum, whereas cultivar JS performed poorly among the tested cultivars. Similarly, cultivar Jawar produced maximum dry matter yield The maximum protein concentration Although JS produced the highest specific methane yield per kilogram of volatile solids, it was overcompensated by Jawar owing to higher dry matter yield per hectare.

These results suggested that cultivar Jawar can be grown successfully in semi-arid conditions of Pakistan in order to get good biomass yield along with higher methane yield. Die Basis hierzu bildet eine abgestimmte und auf die strategischen Unternehmensziele ausgerichtete Architektur und Vorgehensweise.

Analyse der Literatur zu Klimawirkungen in Deutschland: Enhanced biomethane production rate and yield from lignocellulosic ensiled forage ley by in situ anaerobic digestion treatment with endogenous cellulolytic enzymes. Enzymatic treatment of lignocellulosic material for increased biogas production has so far focused on pretreatment methods. However, often combinations of enzymes and different physicochemical treatments are necessary to achieve a desired effect.

This need for additional energy and chemicals compromises the rationale of using enzymes for low energy treatment to promote biogas production. Therefore, simpler and less energy intensive in situ anaerobic digester treatment with enzymes is desirable. However, investigations in which exogenous enzymes are added to treat the material in situ have shown mixed success, possibly because the enzymes used originated from organisms not evolutionarily adapted to the environment of anaerobic digesters.

In this study, to examine the effect of enzymes endogenous to methanogenic microbial communities, cellulolytic enzymes were instead overproduced and collected from a dedicated methanogenic microbial community. By this approach, a solution with very high endogenous microbial cellulolytic activity was produced and tested for the effect on biogas production from lignocellulose by in situ anaerobic digester treatment.

Addition of enzymes, endogenous to the environment of a mixed methanogenic microbial community, to the anaerobic digestion of ensiled forage ley resulted in significantly increased rate and yield of biomethane production. The enzyme solution had an instant effect on more readily available cellulosic material.

More importantly, the induced enzyme solution also affected the biogas production rate from less accessible cellulosic material in a second slower phase of lignocellulose digestion. Notably, this effect was maintained throughout the experiment to completely digested lignocellulosic substrate. The induced enzyme solution collected from a microbial methanogenic community contained enzymes that were apparently active and stable in the environment of anaerobic digestion. The enzymatic activity had a profound effect on the.

This dataset contains information about the biomass resources generated by county in the United States. It includes the following feedstock categories: During phase I of this project we designed and built two different small-scale biogas refineries. The first design used a caustic absorption system. Our initial results showed an increase in CH 4 methane content from Evaluation of anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure with food wastes via bio-methane potential assay and CSTR reactor. The introduction of food wastes into anaerobic digestion AD brings a promising scenario of increasing feedstock availability and overall energy production from AD.

This study evaluated the biodegradability and methane potential from co-digestion of two typical food wastes, kitchen waste and chicken fat, with dairy manure. Synergistic effect was observed when either combining two or three substrates as AD feedstock, possibly as a result of increased biodegradability of organic materials in chicken fat and kitchen waste compared with dairy manure. Addition of chicken fat improved methane yield more than kitchen waste.

Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition) Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition)
Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition) Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition)
Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition) Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition)
Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition) Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition)
Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition) Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition)
Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition) Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition)
Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition) Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition)
Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition) Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition)
Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition) Der Ursprung der Schönheit: Darwins größtes Dilemma (German Edition)

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